NC State University / College of Veterinary Medicine
Freshwater mussel have a variety of amazing ways of luring their host fish.  Some use a portion of their mantle to mimic fish prey.  Others release their glochidia in packets, called conglutinates, that are designed to entice fish to try to eat them.  Click on the photos below to view more photos and video of the strategies of these species found in North Carolina.

Wavy-rayed Lampmussel
(Lampsilis fasciola)

 Undescribed Lampsilis (Tar/Neuse/Cape Fear)
(Lampsilis sp.)

Mantle Lure of Lampsilis fasciola
Undescribed Lampsilis (Tar/Neuse) lure
Eastern Creekshell
(Villosa delumbis)
Eastern Lampmussel
(Lampsilis radiata)
Villosa delumbis lureLampsilis radiata gravid - display
 Eastern Pondshell
(Ligumia nasuta)

Tar River Spinymussel
(Elliptio steinstansana)

Ligumia nasuta mantle
Conglutinate of Tar River Spinymussel
V vaughaniana
V constricta mantle
(Toxolasma parvus)
T parvus display 

See more fascinating video and pictures of mussel lures and conglutinates at The Unio Gallery.

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